4th International Congress of Society of South Asian Archaeology (4SOSSA)

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About Sistan and Baluchestan Province


Sistan & Balouchestan province lies on the southeast of the country and is one of the largest provinces of Iran. This province borders on Soutern Khorasan province & Afghanistan from the north, Pakistan & Afghanistan from the east, Oman Sea from the south and kerman & Hormozgan provinces from the west.
The province extends from the beautiful lake Hamun in the north to the indigo plain of the Oman Sea in the south. There are 14 main cities in the province, Zahedan is the centre of province. The most important cities are Zabol, Hirmand & Zahak in the north and Khash, Iranshahr,Golmorti,  Saravan, Souran,Zaboli,  Sarbaz, Nikshahr, Chabahar and Konarar  in the south.
The area of the province is 187500 sq km 1600km joint border with Pakistan & Afghanistan and 300km water border on the coast of Oman Sea.
It has a population of 2240000 people from different ethnic groups. The religion of people here is Islam and both Shiite & Sunni Muslims live together. This land is full of faith, faith in Islam. There is unity among believers like a mirror reflecting the light of Islam. The province lies on the south-east of Iran with two different structures. In the north Dasht- e- Sistan formed by Hirmand alluvium holds the largest fresh water lake of the world as well as Khaje Mountain. The 120-day winds are a distinguishing feature of this region. The southern part is mostly mountainous with a variety of climates due to the vicinity with Taftan Volcano & Oman Sea.

Lakes & Rivers

 The most significant lakes are: Hamun, Jazmourian and Gowater. Among the rivers Hirmand, Bampur, Kajo, Sarbaz, and Kahir can be named as the most important.

Mountains 

The most famous mountains is: Mt. Taftan with a height of 4300m which once was an active volcano and now is an interesting target for the climbers all over the country. Other mountains are Mt Bazman, Birg, Malek Siah kooh and Mt Khaje.

History

The mythical land of Sistan & Balouchestan consists of two regions: north & south. Sistan or Nimrouz extending over the the northern part of the province is the birthplace of Rostam, the mythical hero of Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh. This land was captured by Muslims in 602.

Balouchestan of today which forms the southern part of the province was called Maka in the oldest historical documents and in 1928 the central government was stabilized there.

Tourism

Beautiful sights of province from the Oman sea to Lake Hamun have an interesting diversity in different seasons and can be of tourists interest.
Among the tourist attractions are: Great ancient civilization of Shahr-i-Sokhta, a third millennium BC, Dahan-ey Gholaman and Chah Nime parks in the north, the famous Taftan Peak and Haftad Molla Cemetery in the center, Bampur, chehel dokhtar and naseri Castles in Iranshahr and Seb Castle in Saravan.
In the town of Chabahar there are beautiful coasts of Oman Sea, Mud flows which are wonders of the area and spread mud like lava in different seasons and the tomb of Seyed Gholam Rasoul from Teimouri era.

Handicrafts

The special importance of handicrafts is their role in creating jobs & producing income. Handicrafts stem from social and personal characteristics of people. This is mostly done by women & girls in rural areas. The most important handicrafts of the province are: Balouchi Needle work, Rug & Carpet weaving, Coin sewing, Mat weaving, Pottery, Jewellery- making, Turnery, Palas- weaving and silk work.


Music

Music in Sistan & Balouchestan is more prominent than in other prtovinces and has always been a source of energy for the people of this area. Instruments like: Qeichak, Robab, Banjo, Tanburak, Doholak and percussion instruments like: Tasht & Kuzeh show the variety of instruments in this area. Of the other different types of music war music, chamber music, Gnostic & feast music can be named.

Technical-Vocational Training Centers

The number of the province’s permanent Technical-vocational training centers are presently 40. The centers are well-equipped and there are more than 100 majors and 105 training work shops. 232 private institutes are also active.

Higher Education

More than 45000 students study in 25 higher education centers among them the most important are: sis& bal university with engineering, human studies &literature and art colleges, Zabol university, Sis&Bal school of Medical sciences in zahedan & zabol, Chabahar university of nautical studies, Islamic Azad university, Payam- e- Noor university &Intl. University of Chabahar.

Treatment & Sanitation

In terms of sanitation and treatment, there are 14 hospitals with more than 2200 beds & 50medical centers and medical universities in Zabol & Zahedan. The ophthalmology and surgical centers of Zahedan are active throughout the region. Fighting contagious diseases, monitoring public sanitation, checking water quality and colorizing, poison spraying, protecting special disease patients, vaccination and family planning are measures being taken vastly and effectively due to the province being located on the border line.

Libraries

There are more than 50 large libraries with 357000 books in the province.

Sport

After the victory of Islamic Revolution sport equipment and facilities have been given special attention. In this regard 60000 sqm indoor & outdoor sport places with the capacity of 20000 persons a day have been built. Native sports have also been revived and are done in special occasions.

Air transport

Air transport is particularly important because of the distance of the province from the capital and other parts of the country. There are 4 airports in the province with International flights. Zahedan Intl. airport, Zabol , Iranshahr and Chabahar airports set schedules and share in the country’s air transport.

Railway

Railway from Zahedan to QUITA is currently active , and will be connected to Kerman railway in near future. So, connection between Asia &Europe will be possible.

Marine transport

Among the most significant marine transport potentials of the province for the transfer of cargo and passengers are Shahid Beheshti &Shahid kalantari Quays and the Martyrs of Haftom-e-Tir Quay which are all along the coast line of the Oman sea . The existence of Chabahar Free Zone and the most economical route for the transit of cargo to Middle Asian countries have added to this importance.

Roads

More than 6000Km asphalted roads make connection between cities in & out of province possible.

Electricity

Iranshahr steam power-station & Konarak & Zahedan gas power-stations produce 1400000 million KW energy per hour. Meanwhile through 230-kw lines of Jakigoor – Pishin and 20-kw lines of Jalq- Mirjave the required electricity of parts of Pakistan is supplied. Of the most prominent achievements in this regard is the connection of the province electricity network to the country’s overall electricity network in 2001.

Water

Water for drinking, agriculture, and industry is supplied through two ways in the province: surface and subterranean. Surface sources are the 6 permanent rivers Sistan, Shirdel, Golmir in Sistan and Ladiz, Bampour,Sarbaz in Balouchestn. Water for agriculture in Sistan is supplied through river Hirmand and un the time of water shortage through half well reservoirs having capacity of about 660 million cubic m. The drinking water for Zabol and about 850 villages surrounding it, is at the present supplied through half well reservoirs. The surface water utilization of Balouchestn is done through Bampoor Deviational dam in Iranshahr and Pishin dam in Chabahar.

Information & Communication Technology

Internet capacity in the province is 155Mbps. The number of users is 856000 and the length of the light fiber is 3000 Km.

Industry & Mining

Industry is new to the province. Efforts have been done and tax, customs and financial motivations have caused more industrial investment, new projects, new producing jobs and improvement of industry.
The most important factories are:
- Khash cement factory with production of 2600 tons cement daily and three other cement factories under construction.
- Cotton cloth &Fishing net weaving factories and the Brick factory can be named as well.

The province has important geological and metal mineral potentials such as: Chrome, copper, granite, antimony, talc, manganese, iron, lead, zinc, tin, nickel, platinum, gold & silver.

Agriculture

Owing to its potential in the north& the south, the province has a long history in agriculture. Sistan was once called Iran’s granary. The most important agricultural products are: wheat, alfalfa, corn, vegetables, henna & garden products, dates, citrus, pistachio, grape, banana, mango, papaya, and olive. The province ranks first in the country with regard to the amount of tropical and semi- tropical products and citrus.

Fish Farming

Due to the special geographical and climatic conditions and adjacency to the vast waters of Oman and Indian Ocean, benefiting from 10 fishing ports, and with its quays and fishing platforms the province is very suitable for fisheries activities in the country. In 10 fishing ports the amount of annual fishing is more than 150000 tons a year.

Cattle

The cattle of the province are the main source of animal protein& consist of many types and breeds of cattle. Three important cattle breeds which are the main breeds of province are: Sistani cow, Dashtyari Cow & Balouchi sheep which are known all over the country.

Commerce

Considering its historical background and being on the big roads of the world’s commerce, Sistan & Balouchestan province benefits from special importance in commerce as the dominating factor in the region. The free commercial and industrial zone of Chabahar is one of the strong points of the province. Free Zone has been built adjacent to Shahid Beheshti & Shahid Kalantari ports with an area of 14000 hectors of which 10000 hectors is industrial and the rest is allotted to commerce and services. The transit highway from Chabahar to Milak , mirjave &Milak borders have made good condition for commercial activities here.

Border Markets

5 border markets of the 7 approved are currently active in: Mirjave, Koohak, Pishin, Jalq and Milak. Border markets of Pasa Bandar, Gamshad and Rimdan are under construction. For the time being, annually a considerable volume of goods is exchanged at Iran-Pakistan border via these markets. The rate of exchanged items between the two neighboring countries within the past 11 months of the current year is as follows:
Exporting different kinds of industrial, agricultural and petroleum products from Zahedan customs: 201,651 tons with a value of 73.5 million dollars
From Mirjave customs: 1814 tons with a value of 23 million dollars,
From kohak market: 6148 tons with a value of 3 million dollars and from Pishin 18634 tons with a value of 3.6million dollars. Importing items including: Chataie rice and other goods rates 167438 tons with a value of 51 million dollars.
 


 




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